Detection of sugar in the urine
Practically relevant definition of grape sugar, whose presence in urine indicates glyukozurii. There are several reactions determine the quality of sugar in the urine. The most sensitive reaction Nilandera. The essence of it is as follows. Nilandera reagent (2 g of bismuth nitrate knead in the mortar with 4 g segnetovoy salt is dissolved in 100 g 10% solution of sodium and edkogo filter) is stored in dark glass. In these circumstances, it remains fit for a long time. To determine the quality of sugar in the urine is poured into the tube 5 of the filtered urine, and then add 2 parts of reagents Nilandera. Then the mixture boil for 3 minutes. In the presence of sugar in the urine is painted black as a result of recovery in the alkaline environment of bismuth nitrate, contained in the reagents Nilandera, the metal bismuth.
Please note that by boiling urine can buy black and after ingestion of certain drugs.
It is important to study the urine sediment. Sediment produced by defending or centrifuge. Centrifuging produced in special centrifuges. In the draft of urine can be identified epithelial cells, leukocytes, erythrocytes, salt.
Epithelial cells are flat (multi-faceted, flat, large cells), round (round, oval shape, large size), tailed. The presence of epithelial cells in the urine in large numbers suggests inflammation in the urinary tract. Normally in the urine is determined by 1-2 cells in the visual field.
Isolated leukocytes in the field of view are found in any normal urine, particularly after physical stress. The presence of a large number (sometimes they cover the entire field of view) shows purulent process in the urinary tract (Piura). In acidic urine in the protoplasm of leukocytes can be seen grain. To better distinguish between leukocytes, to the draft adds a drop of 3% solution of acetic acid, then the grain will disappear, and the nucleus are clearly visible.
The continued presence of erythrocytes in the sediment of urine indicates the disease. Erythrocytes have the correct form, temnovaty color, sometimes glue together ( «coin» bollards). Erythrocytes lose their dye, called leached or the shadows of red blood cells. The presence of leached erythrocytes indicates kidney disease. Erythrocytes in urine are found in the jade, nefroskleroze, with tuberculosis, neoplasm kidney cystitis.
Cylinders are epithelial, grain, and hyaline voskovidnye. They are formed from the canals of the urinary epithelium, renal epithelium, and the coagulated protein in the damage of renal parenchyma.
In addition to the actual kidney cylinders, can be detected in urine and protein cylinders origin – blood consisting of red blood cells, leukocytic, consisting of leukocytes, mochekislye consisting of mochekislyh salts.