A great group of pneumonia, a very different mechanism of development, known as focal. Broncho-pneumonia develops as a consequence of chronic bronchitis (infection spreads from the bronchi). Long, hypostatic pneumonia, develops as a result of long-term violations of pulmonary ventilation, stagnant phenomena are due to prolonged forced position the patient on his back, for example, with fractures of lower extremities, myocardial infarction, stroke, etc. The so-called perifocal pneumonia – is inflammation around the foreign body in the lung (gunshot or shrapnel wounds) around bronchiectasia, cancer, tuberculosis cavity, bladder ehinokokkovogo and others common to all focal pneumonia is that, first, agents are here – pneumococcus , streptococcus, staphylococcus, bacillus fridlenderovskie; second, localized pneumonia – this lobular pneumonia, as opposed to shared, croupous when the process involves a large portion of lung tissue – and a whole share.
In some cases there has been some pockets of destruction, as it happens, for example, with influenza pneumonia (original spot at the X-ray study).
Pathologic process, with focal pneumonia develops as a whole by the same rules as pneumonia share – serous effusion in the alveolus, opechenenie, permission. However, no clear cyclical and generally less active inflammatory process. The exception is the so-called metastatic purulent foci in the lungs as a result of carrying out of any peripheral purulent focus (peritonitis, liver abscess, osteomyelitis, etc.). The clinical picture of focal pneumonia less pronounced compared with croupous.
As part of the secondary, localized pneumonia, as if absorbed by the major diseases (influenza, exacerbation of chronic bronchitis).
The clinical picture. Increased body temperature, there is pain in the chest due to irritation pleura, increasing cough. These symptoms suggest starting bronchopneumonia.
In addition, the survey revealed a number of objective symptoms: krepitiruyuschie bubbling rale on the limited area of inflammation, areas of bronchial breathing. X-ray of the darkening observed. In the study of pathological changes in the blood (leukocytosis, an increase Zoé) less expressed than in croupous pneumonia. Common symptoms: malaise, weakness, expressed moderately.
Improvement occurs gradually, the temperature is reduced lytic, ie, not immediately, but within a few days.
Treatment and care in substantially the same as that of a kruppoznoy pneumonia.
We should pay due attention to and treatment of major diseases, against which developed focal pneumonia.
Prevention of focal pneumonia – it is primarily the prevention of bronchitis, influenza.
Warning hypostatic pneumonia is a careful and caring for patients suffering from severe internal and surgical diseases, in a passive position. As mentioned above, it is important to comply strictly with the appointment to ensure adequate ventilation of the lungs (breathing exercises), to monitor the eating of such patients (prevention poperhivany). To avoid the development of stagnant phenomena in the lungs recommended banks sinapism. It is necessary to prevent bedsores.
Category Diseases of the respiratory system