The causes of the disease (etiology) (Part I)

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

There are internal and external factors affecting the occurrence of the disease. Of the external factors should be noted infectious, toxic, thermal, mechanical, etc.
Infection. Disease (pathogenic) microbes (streptococci, pneumococcus, dysenteric bacillus, etc.) and viruses may be the cause of disease. Microbes and viruses enter the body healthy person, either directly from the patient (airborne route of transmission) when it infects others when coughing, sneezing, rasseivaya saliva, mucus from the mouth and upper respiratory tract, sputum, or recorded with food, contaminated by various microorganisms (Nemytykh consumption of fruits and vegetables, dirty hands). Infection can be transmitted via objects contaminated with secretions the patient, as well as dust. Gnoerodnye microorganisms can enter the bloodstream through the healthy scratches, abrasions on the skin, causing gnoynichkovye disease. Read more »

Category The disease - what is it? | No comments »

Basic research methods Patient: Introduction

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

In order to diagnose it, using clinical and additional laboratory studies, X-ray and other methods of study are divided into objective and subjective. At the outset of the survey asked the patient several questions: what, he complains, which began with the disease and find out the identity of other patients, ie age, occupation, etc. Questions a patient is very important to recognize the disease and the information obtained as a result Questions, constitute a basis for continuing study.

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Diseases of the joints: types of arthritis

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Infectious arthritis (inflammation of the joints) are nonspecific and specific.
Before proceeding to the presentation of clinical features of diseases of the joints, should say a few words about anatomofiziologicheskih the features of the system of the human body. When people talk about the anatomy of the joints, the mean glenoid bag surrounding the joint and composed of connective tissue, the actual cavity of the joint where the articular ends of bones are enshrined (epiphysis), covered with cartilage (the cartilage smooth and elastic).
Joints affected with many diseases: rheumatism, tuberculosis, syphilis, gonorrhea, dysentery, as well as non-communicable, exchange violations in the human body (for example, in gout), and trauma.

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Obesity

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Common is currently a pathological disorder, consisting of the excess deposits of fat in the subcutaneous fat, higher in the abdomen, neck, buttocks, breasts, neck, and in the mesentery, epikardiya (obesity, heart), in okololopatochnoy tissue.
Obesity (fat) may be due to systematic over-(in combination with excess alcohol), sedentary lifestyle. Read more »

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Heart disease

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Heart disease is called a group of diseases in which there are defects in heart valves, leading to circulation. There are congenital heart disease that develop during the formation of the embryo, in infancy. More often, however, are acquired by the vices – of heart valve defects, breach of endocarditis due to infection or rheumatoid sclerotic process. Read more »

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Diseases of the bowel: enteritis and colitis

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Enteritis – inflammation of mucous thin and shk and – occurs under the influence of infection (typhoid, paratyphoid) glistnoy invasion, exposure to toxic substances, malnutrition. Enteritis contributes to the development of alcohol abuse and smoking. Disruption of the stomach, pancreas treatment also contributes to the development of the disease.
When enteritis small intestine mucous membrane swelling, covered with mucus, marked point hemorrhages in the mucous layer. Read more »

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Chronic gastritis: the causes

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

One of the main factors leading to chronic gastritis, is a frequently recurring acute inflammation of gastric mucosa. It should also be noted that all of the above disadvantages to the development of acute gastritis is a cause of chronic and with the only difference is that these factors affect the mucous membrane of the stomach longer. It is a systematic admission is too sharp, hot food, stale or insufficient cooking of processed food, alcoholic beverages, smoking. Significant role in the development of chronic gastritis plays frequent nerve stress, which leads to violations of the functions of the stomach (secretory and motor). Read more »

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Investigation of the blood, taking blood

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

The most simple and affordable way to obtain small quantities of blood is the taking of blood from a finger. Blood taken from a finger to make a general analysis, to determine coagulability, bleeding time, count the number of platelets and some other studies. Due to the fact that there is a danger in taking the transfer of blood infection of hepatitis B virus, which does not die under the influence of chemical antiseptic substances. At present, renounced the use of nesterilizuyuschihsya devices, including needles and Frank. Used to capture the blood pen Jenner to about boiling, for each patient using the individual tools. Read more »

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Emergency services in the poisoning

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

In industry, agriculture and the home are widely applied to various chemicals. The number of people exposed to these substances is increasing, posing a risk of poisoning. Poisonings also possible with the self, when used without a doctor different, including potent drugs, surrogate alcohol. In our country, set up special centers for the treatment of poisoning, with large hospitals. These centers use a comprehensive treatment of poisoning. It is the combination of rational methods for the rapid removal of toxic substances from the body’s poisoned, the use of the funds that support the core functions of the organism (in particular, the cardiovascular system), as well as in the treatment of organ or system, which mainly struck by a poison (kidney, liver, and etc.). Read more »

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Unloading days in various diseases

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

1. Milk day number 1. In cardiovascular system, diseases of circulatory insufficiency phenomena being subcompensation and decompensation.
After every 2 h, 6 times a day, 100 ml of boiled milk, or kefir, clabber, atsidofilina and overnight 200 ml of fruit juice with 20 g of glucose, or sugar. To drink a day (600 ml) milk or dairy products vyshenaziachennym can be added 2 times a day to 25 g podsushennogo white bread.
2. Milk day number 2. In gout, obesity.
1,5 l of boiled milk, or kefir, clabber, atsidofilina take 6 receptions every 2-3 hours, approximately 250 ml. Read more »

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Early symptoms of tuberculosis

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Early symptoms of tuberculosis intoxication. Early symptoms of tuberculosis intoxication can be considered as recurrent, non-permanent high fever, irritability, and rapid fatigue, weakness, decrease in appetite, sweating. With an objective examination of clinical methods of diagnosis in most cases do not provide a specific pathologic focus (by means of percussion and auscultation can not reveal significant pathological changes in the lungs). Diagnosis is primarily based on the presence of tuberculin skin reactions expressed by the X-ray studies and studies of blood. Of course, accounted for and anamnestic data, complaints, etc. Read more »

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Anatomy of the thyroid gland

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Iron – This is the body produce a special substance (secrets) that are needed in the life of the organism. In contrast to the external secretory glands (salivary, sweat), which display, respectively, saliva and sweat through special excretory duct outwards (just like many other cancer, with vneshnesekretornoy function), endocrine glands (thyroid, adrenal, etc.) or endocrine glands produce secrets, known as hormones. Excretory duct of these glands is not, and hormones from the gland cells penetrate the bloodstream and have on these or other organs or systems of stimulating or depressant effect. Read more »

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Diabetes mellitus

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Diabetes mellitus, or, as previously called, sugar diabetes, one of the common diseases associated with metabolic disorders. Developed diabetes mellitus under the influence of unfavorable factors (nervous shock, diseases of the pancreas, the systematic violation of diet, etc.), there is the role of heredity.
The essence of the disease is in violation of the body’s ability to accumulate sugar coming from outside in the organs and tissues. Undigested sugar enters the blood and is excreted in the urine, which is allocated and the outdoors. Read more »

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Myocardial infarction

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Myocardial infarction – is the heart muscle necrosis. It is caused by an acute blockage of coronary arteries are blood clots or severe spasm of them. The mechanism of its development has much in common with angina. As with angina, there is a violation of myocardial blood supply.
However, if the violation stenocardia myocardial blood supply is temporary and does not lead to the development of organic changes in the heart muscle, a myocardial infarction occurs when ischemia and then a hotbed of necrosis in a department of the heart muscle. Read more »

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Arterial hypertension

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

The occurrence of hypertension associated with long-term nerve overstretch. As a result of excess brain artery is «chaotic» activities subcortical formations, vasomotor center, resulting in reductions in spastic peripheral vascular, renal circulatory disturbance. As a result, the body produces gipertenzin contributing to the development of disease. Among other mechanisms in the development of hypertension play an important role neuroendocrine violations. The development of the disease is often associated with menopause, when there are hormonal disorders. Spasm of small vessels of the periphery leads to sklerozirovaniyu, seal them. The need to overcome the increased resistance and increasing the diastolic (minimum) pressure create greater strain on the left ventricle of heart, and he gipertrofiruetsya, thicken, resulting in higher maximum (systolic) blood pressure. Read more »

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Chronic bronchitis

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Most often, chronic bronchitis is a result of acute treatment which was carried out late and has not been completed. When you started treatment late, when the patient does not comply with doctor’s prescriptions, as well as those damaged by previous or severe chronic illness, acute bronchitis can go chronic. Great danger of transition of acute and chronic bronchitis in young children and old age (after 75 years). Undoubtedly, the move increases the risk of acute bronchitis in chronic when patients continue to smoke and where not excluded by any harmful factors (cooling, harmful vapors, gases, etc.). In chronic inflammation may experience some structural changes: thinning of the walls of the bronchi, the expansion of space. Read more »

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Pneumonia: An Introduction

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

When inflammation affects the proportion of light, say croupous pneumonia, depending on what percentage and how light struck, it may be, for example, right lower, middle or nizhnedolevoy. Inflammatory process can capture an entire lung or even both lungs is the total pneumonia.
When focal pneumonia in the lung inflammatory process captures a limited area (affected segments). This bronchopneumonia, influenza pneumonia, and congestive perifocal pneumonia.

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Anemias

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Among the diseases of hematopoietic system are the most frequent anemia, or anemia. This is a pathological condition in which reduced the number of red blood cells in blood or reduced content of hemoglobin in erythrocytes, while maintaining their usual amount.
Anemia can be associated with large blood loss (eg, trauma), decreasing the function of red bone marrow, with insufficient resupply the body needed for blood products, particularly vitamin B12, or iron, as well as infektsionnotoksicheskim effects on bone marrow. Read more »

Category Diseases of the blood: anemia, leukemia | No comments »

Pancreatitis

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Brief anatomofiziologicheskie data. Pancreas is located in the abdominal cavity near the duodenum. Its role in the digestive process is very important. Provided in the lumen of the duodenum pancreatic juice contains proteins required for the digestion enzyme trypsin required for the digestion of carbohydrates and fats diastazu enzymes and lipase.
Pancreas – parenchymal organ elongated shape. In addition vneshnesekretornoy function in question, it produces insulin, which helps digest carbohydrates entering the body. Read more »

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Vitamins in human life

June 25th, 2008 Autor: admin

Vitamins-an essential component of human diet. The presence of the body is essential for the full life of the various organs and systems. Man gets vitamins directly from plant foods or animal products, where vitamins accumulate in animal life, doing it in the body of the plant. Vitamins – vysokobiologicheski active substances.
Diseases, developing at the lack of providing the body with vitamins, known as beriberi, or gipoavitaminozami.
The reasons for hypo and multiple vitamin deficiency: the lack of them in the daily ration; breach their digestibility in the body, particularly in the gastrointestinal, pathological changes in liver, which helps education in the body of certain vitamins, vitamin deficiency due to enhanced destruction of the body due to the sharp overheating or hypothermia. Hypo-and vitamin deficiency can also occur during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

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